It’s rare to get paid for academic publications but the Korean-language article I’d like to briefly introduce here actually earned me some money! I received it with my author’s contract after dinner, pre-Covid. The book arrived in early 2000 and the first to notice were the librarians of Ewha Womans University (my workplace) who kindly requested a copy.
More important than all this was the honor to be part of this project and the opportunity to publish in Korean. The book is basically a collected papers volume by Prof. Chun In Pyong (전인평), eminent scholar of Korean, Asian, and other musics, editor of Asian Musicology, formerly of Chung-Ang University (중앙대학교) and now in retirement but more productive than ever! Besides fifteen chapters by him – on topics spanning centuries and the continent –, there is one more by Seo Jeongmae (서정매) on Buddhist music as well as mine on pansori research outside of Korea. The book can be ordered in book stores (in Korea, obviously) and online (e.g. at Aladin) and is available in the library of Ewha Womans University (as well as elsewhere).
The title of the book, 한국 음악계의 뜨거운 감자, is absolutely great, literally “Hot Potatoes of the Korean Music Scene”. While many of Prof. Chun’s chapters have a controversial edge, I’m not sure if mine qualifies as hot. Hopefully it’s nourishing, though, with a comparative overview of current (in 2019) scholarship on pansori published in English, French, and German.
Below, I provide the English abstract and my slightly edited bibliography (leaving out encyclopedia entries and other general references) that might be helpful for anyone approaching pansori from abroad. A few translations of pansori songs in French and German are also included, although a more complete list would be a topic for another post.
— 16 October 2019 (水)
Jan Creutzenberg (Ewha Womans University)
A History of Overseas Research on Pansori, including English, French, and German Language Publications
Pansori is arguably one of the Korean traditional performing arts best-known abroad. Besides guest performances and translations, academic scholars also conduct research on pansori. This paper explores the different contexts, trajectories, and approaches that inform research on pansori conducted overseas, as well as the results and their significance. Publications considered include theses on the MA- and PhD-level, research monographs, and papers published in journals or edited volumes. Further criteria for inclusion are 1) publication outside of Korea, 2) publication in English, French, or German, and 3) a clear focus on pansori.
The terminology and descriptions for pansori that are used in encyclopedic entries on Korean culture, music and theatre, as well as pre-modern testimonies about pansori performances by early Western visitors to Korea show that interest developed early and includes various perspectives on the genre. It was not until the 1970s, though, that overseas research on pansori began to emerge fully.
Following Marshall Pihl, who wrote the first PhD-dissertation on pansori in English after spending time as an exchange student in Korea, graduate students from Korea went abroad, to the United States, Great Britain, Germany, and France, and introduced pansori to academia. Since the 1990s, doctoral theses on pansori rooted in fieldwork in Korea emerged in the field of ethnomusicology and were later published as books. In recent years, overseas pansori research began to employ more diverse methodologies, particularly from the field of theatre and performance studies, also including non-traditional ways of performing pansori, such as newly-written works (changjak pansori) and changgeuk (staged pansori).
The “exchange” researchers since the 1970s include Marshall Pihl, Woo Ok Kim, Sohn Yong-Chan, Wha-Byong Lee, Kyo-chul Chung, Daihyun Kim, Sung-Sook Y. Chung, and Ra Jin-Hwan. The “fieldwork” researchers since the 1990s include Haekyung Um, Chan E. Park, Yeonok Jang, Heather Willoughby, and Andrew Killick. The “interdisciplinary” researchers since the 2000s include Han Yumi, Anna Yates-Lu, Dorothea Suh, and Jan Creutzenberg. Recent publications by scholars such as Patrice Pavis, Jozefina Komporaly, Tara McAllister-Viel, Konstantinos Thomaidis, Ruth Mueller and others contribute to the growing body of overseas pansori research, while focusing on wider questions.
Nowadays, those who see, study, and sing pansori are not restricted to Korea, as could be seen at a symposium on “Pansori in Europe” held in Berlin in 2017. The “internationalization” of pansori research will further evolve and diversify, promising new perspectives on the possibilities of this artistic practice and cultural heritage.
- 이안 코이츤베악. 2020. 「해외의 판소리 연구사 – 영어, 독일어, 프랑스어 문헌을 중심으로」,전인평 외,『한국 음악계의 뜨거운 감자』, 396–416. 서울: 아시아음악학회.
- Jan Creutzenberg. 2020. “Haoe ui pansori yeongu sa: yeong-eo, dogil-eo, peurangseu-eo munheoneul jungsimeuro” (A History of Overseas Research on Pansori, including English, French, and German Language Publications). In: Chun In Pyong (Jeon In-pyeong), Seo Jeongmae, and Jan Creutzenberg, Hanguk eumakgye ui tteugeoun gamja (The Hot Issues of the Korean Music Society), 396–416. Seoul: Council for Asian Musicology.
Bibliography of pansori-related research (until 2019):
- Choe Key-sook [최기숙], Han Yumi [한유미]. 2017. Bonjour Pansori ! Pansori et Changgeuk à l’âge de la globalisation. Paris: Editions Imago.
- Chung, Kyo-chul [정교철]. 1997. Studien zu P’ansori: Ein Beitrag zu Geschichte, Wesensstruktur und Gestaltungsprinzipien des koreanischen Epengesangs. Seoul: Hice (= Phd-dissertation, Universität Köln, 1993).
- Chung, Sung-Sook Y. [정성숙]. 1998. The Impact of Yin and Yang Ideology in the Art of Korean P’ansori Tradition: An Analytical Study Based on the Late Mme. Pak Nok-Ju Version of P’ansori Hungbo-ga. Phd-dissertation, University of California – Santa Barbara.
- Creutzenberg, Jan. 2011. “The Good Person of Korea: Lee Jaram’s Sacheon-ga as a Dialogue between Brecht and Pansori.” Brecht Yearbook 36: 225–238. Storrs, CT: International Brecht Society.
- —. 2013. “From Traditional Opera to Modern Music Theatre? Recent Experiments in Ch’anggŭk.” Transactions of the Royal Asiatic Society Korea Branch 88: 87–102.
- —. 2017. Creating Community: Moments of “We” in Contemporary Pansori Performances. Phd-dissertation, Freie Universität Berlin, Institut für Theaterwissenschaft.
- Han, You Mee [한유미 = Han Yumi]. 2012. Le pansori, patrimoine coréen sous sa triple dimension littéraire, musicale et scénique: histoire, analyse et perspectives. Phd-dissertation, Université Paris 7 – Diderot.
- Han Yumi [한유미]. 2015a. Le pansori: un art de la scène, patrimoine coréen vivant. Besançon: Presses Universitaires de Franche-Comté.
- —. 2015b. “La réception du pansori en France.” Théâtre/Public 218 (octobre).
- —. 2015c. “Le pansori, une identité complexe.” Théâtre/Public 218 (octobre).
- Jang, Yeonok [장연옥]. 2000. Development and Change in Korean Narrative Song, P’ansori. Phd-dissertation, University of London – School of Oriental and African Studies.
- —. 2001. “P’ansori Performance Style: Audience Responses and Singers’ Perspectives.” British Journal of Ethnomusicology 10.2: 99-121.
- —. 2014. Korean P’ansori Singing Tradition: Development, Authenticity, and Performance History. Plymouth: Scarecrow Press.
- Killick, Andrew. 1997. “Putting P’ansori on the Stage: A Re-study in Honor of Marshall R. Pihl.” Korea Journal 37.1: 108-130.
- —. 1998a. The Invention of Traditional Korean Opera and the Problem of the Traditionesque: Ch’anggŭk and its Relation to P’ansori Narratives. Phd-dissertation, University of Washington.
- —. 1998b. “Ch’anggŭk: Re-making P’ansori as ‘Korean Traditional Opera’.” Korean Culture 19.2-3:4-13.
- —. 2001a. “Ch’anggŭk Opera and the Category of the ‘Traditionesque’.” Korean Studies 25.1: 51–71.
- —. 2001b. “The Traditional Opera of the Future? Ch’anggŭk’s First Century.” In: Contemporary Directions: Korean Folk Music Engaging the Twentieth Century and Beyond, edited by Nathan Hesselink, 22-53. Berkeley: Center for Korean Studies, University of California.
- —. 2002. “Korean Ch’angguk Opera: Its Origins and its Origin Myth.” Asian Music 33.2:43-82.
- —. 2003. “Jockeying for Tradition: The Checkered History of Korean Ch’anggŭk Opera.” Asian Theatre Journal 20.1: 43–70.
- —. 2010. In Search of Korean Traditional Opera: Discourses of Ch’anggŭk. Honolulu: University of Hawai‘i Press.
- Kim, Daihyun [김대현]. 1997. P’ansori als Aufführungskunst. Trier: Wissenschaftlicher Verlag (= Phd-dissertation, Universität Bochum, 1995).
- Kim, Woo Ok [김우옥]. 1980. P’ansori: An Indigenous Theater of Korea. Phd-dissertation, New York University, Department of Drama.
- Komporaly, Jozefina. 2017. “Adaptation at the Crossroads: Cultural Syncretism and Multimodality in Performance(ZU-UK, Pansori Project ZA).” Chapter 6 in: Radical Revival as Adaptation: Theatre, Politics, Society, 161–196. London: Palgrave Macmillan.
- Lee, Wha-Byong [이화병]. 1991. Studien zur Pansori-Musik in Korea. Frankfurt a.M.: Peter Lang (= Phd-dissertation, Universität Hamburg, 1990).
- Lee, Yong-Shik [이용식], editor. 2008. Pansori. Seoul: National Gugak Center.
- —. 2001. “A Cross-Cultural Examination of Breath and Sound Production in Pansori.” In: The Voice in Violence and other Contemporary Issues in Professional Voice and Speech Training, edited by Rocco Dal Vera, 297-311. Cincinatti: Voice and Speech Trainers Association.
- —. 2006. Toward an Intercultural/Interdisciplinary Approach to Train Actors’ Voices. Phd-dissertation, University of Exeter.
- —. 2007. “Speaking with an international voice?” Contemporary Theatre Review 17.1: 97-106.
- —. 2015. “Training Actors’ Voices: Towards an Intercultural/Interdisciplinary Approach.” In: Voice Studies: Critical Approaches to Process, Performance and Experience, edited by Konstantinos Thomaidis, Ben Macpherson, 49–63. London and New York: Routledge.
- Mueller, Ruth. 2013. Female Participation in South Korean Traditional Music: Late Chosŏn to the Present Day. Phd-dissertation, University of Sheffield, Department of Music, 2013.
- Park-Miller, Chan Eung [박찬응 = Chan E. Park]. 1995. P’ansori Performed: From Strawmat to Proscenium and Back. Phd-dissertation, University of Hawai‘i.
- Park, Chan E. [박찬응 = Chan Eung Park-Miller]. 1998a. “Playful Reconstruction of Gender in P’ansori Storytelling.” Korean Studies 22: 62-81.
- —. 1998b. “Why Recitative, Instead of Just Speaking or Singing, in P’ansori Storytelling?” In: Perspectives on Korea, edited by Sang-Oak, Duk-Soo Park, 499–510. Sydney: Wild Peony.
- —. 1998c. “P’ansori in Trans-National Context: The Global Transmission of Korean Performance Tradition.” Korean Culture, 19: 14–21.
- —. 1999. “P’ansori, the Ancient Art of Storytelling.” In: Traditional Storytelling Today: An International Sourcebook, edited by Margaret Read McDonald, 122–29. Chicago and London: Fitzroy Dearborn.
- —. 2000. “‘Authentic Audience’ in P’ansori, a Korean Storytelling Tradition.” Journal of American Folklore 113 (Summer): 270-286
- —. 2003. Voices from the Straw Mat: Toward an Ethnography of Korean Story Singing. Honolulu: University of Hawai‘i Press.
- —. 2003. “Poetics and Politics of Korean Oral Tradition in a Cross-cultural Context.” The World of Music 45.3: 91-103.
- Pavis, Patrice. 2017. “Is Modernized Pansori Political? On Lee Jaram’s Ukchuk-Ga (Mother Courage and her Children).” Chapter 9 in: Performing Korea, 153-174. London: Palgrave Macmillan.
- Pihl, Marshall R. 1974. The Tale of Sim Ch’ŏng: A Korean Oral Narrative. Phd-dissertation, Harvard University.
- —. 1984a. “Dramatic Structure and Narrative Technique in the Korean Oral Narrative, P’ansori.” Korea Journal 24.11 (Nov.): 27-32.
- —. 1984b. “The Korean Singer of Tales.” Korea Journal 24.10 (Oct.): 21-31.
- —. 1991. “Putting P’ansori on the Stage.” Korea Journal 31.1 (Spring): 110-119.
- —. 1994. The Korean Singer of Tales. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
- Ra, Jin-Hwan [나진환]. 2001. L’acte ethique dans le processus creatif du performer de p’ansori. Phd-dissertation, Université Paris 8: Vincennes-Saint-Denis, Department of Theatre.
- Sohn Yong-Chan [손영찬]. 1984. Pan-Sori: Das koreanische Singspiel. Phd-dissertation, Freie Universität Berlin, Altertumswissenschaften.
- Suh, Dorothea. 2012. “The Importance of Korean P’ansori for National Identity.” Working Papers in Korean Studies 35: 3–16. London: School of Oriental and African Studies.
- —. 2016. “Achim Freyers Mr. Rabbit and the Dragon King: Eine Interpretation des koreanischen P’ansori Sugungga” In: Musik – Politik – Identität, edited by Matthew Gardner, Hanna Walsdorf엮음, 183–97. Göttingen: Göttingen University Press.
- Thomaidis, Konstantinos. 2013. The Grain of a Vocal Genre: A Comparative Approach to the Singing Pedagogies of EVDC Integrative Performance Practice, Korean Pansori, and the Centre for Theatre Practices ‘Gardzienice’. Phd-dissertation, University of London – Royal Holloway, Department of Drama, Theatre and Dance.
- Um, Hae-kyung [엄혜경]. 1992. Making P’ansori: Korean Musical Drama. Phd-dissertation, Queen’s University, Belfast.
- —. 2000. “Listening Patterns and Identity of the Korean Diaspora in the Former USSR.” British Journal of Ethnomusicology 9.2: 121-142.
- —. 2007. “New P’ansori in Twenty-first-Century Korea: Creative Dialectics of Tradition and Modernity.” Asian Theatre Journal 25.1: 24-57.
- —. 2013. Korean Musical Drama: P’ansori and the Making of Tradition in Modernity. Farnham: Ashgate.
- Willoughby, Heather. 2000. “The Sound of Han: P’ansori, Timbre and a Korean Ethos of Pain and Suffering.” Yearbook for Traditional Music 32: 17–30.
- —. 2002. The Sound of Han: P’ansori, Timbre, and a South Korean Discourse of Sorrow and Lament. Phd-dissertation, Columbia University.
- Yates-Lu, Anna. 2017. P’ansori Today: Reconciling Tradition and Creativity in Modern Society. Phd-dissertation, University of London – School of Oriental and African Studies, Department of Music.
- —. 2019. “Aligning Tradition and Creativity: Preserving Pansori in South Korea.” International Journal of Intangible Heritage 14: 49–65.
Translations of pansori songs (German and French):
- Chung Kyochul [정교철], Matthias R. Entreß, translators. 2005. Pansori: Die gesungenen Romane Koreas, Bd. 1: Gesänge von Liebe, Treue und listigen Tieren [German translation of 춘향가, 심청가, 수궁가]. Thunum/Ostfriesland: Edition Peperkorn.
- Han Yumi [한유미], Hervé Péjaudier, translators. 2001. Le dit de Heungbo [French translation of 흥보가]. Paris: Éditions HYM-Librairie Galerie Racine.
- —. 2010. Le Dit de Sichuan [French translation of 사천가]. By Lee Jaram [이자람]. Paris: Éditions Imago.
- —. 2012. Sugungga, Le dit du palais sous les mers [French translation of 수궁가]. Paris: Éditions Imago.
Early Western writings on Korean music, including references to pansori:
- Boots, J. L. 1940. “Korean Musical Instruments and An Introduction to Korean Music.” Transactions of the Korea Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society 30: 1–32. Seoul: Y.M.C.A. Press.
- Eckardt, Andreas. 1930. Koreanische Musik. Tokyo: Deutsche Gesellschaft für Natur- u. Völkerkunde Ostasiens. [reprint: Musik-Lied-Tanz in Korea. Bonn: H. Bouvier, 1968.]
- Griffis, William Elliot. 1882. Corea: the Hermit Nation. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons.
- Hulbert, Homer B. 1896. “Korean Vocal Music.” The Korean Repository (February): 45–53.
- —. 1906. The Passing of Korea. New York: Doubleday, Page & Company.