Glossary

Both a tool for and a by-product of my PhD-project, this is a list of Korean key terms, names of individuals, ensembles, venues, organizations etc. that appear in my doctoral dissertation, in hangeul, romanized, translated, if necessary with short explanations. Most entries relate to pansori (the subject of my PhD), but some might be of use to those interested in other Korean traditional performing arts, too.

Technically speaking, this simple text-file is probably not the perfect solution, but for the time it seems like the best balance of user-friendliness and update-ability. While not a database, the generic search function at least allows for easy access, making double entries in Korean and English unnecessary.

Therefore, the alphabetic list follows the hangeul-spelling, using Revised Romanization. I might add quotes, references, and links in the future, though, but for now all explanations– really just the basics –are mine, unless otherwise noted, based mostly on common knowledge and well-known facts, with the Encyclopedia of Korean Culture (한국민족문화대백과사전), the Korean language version of Wikipedia (한국어 위키백과), as well as Namu-Wiki (나무위키, another wiki-style database) as additional sources.

ajaeng (아쟁) traditional Korean bowed zither

aniri (아니리) spoken parts in pansori, see also chang

Bak-taryeong (박타령) “Song of the Gourd” 1) early title of the piece nowadays commonly known as Heungbo-ga (“Song of Heungbo”), 2) a song from Heungbo-ga about the opening of a gourd, a present for the “good brother” Heungbo, which turns out to be full of gold

ballim (발림) gestures and movements employed in pansori, for the most part conventionally codified, performed according to the singer’s individual style, see also neoreumsae

boyu-ja (예능 보유자) lit. “holder” see yeneung boyu-ja

bubun-chang (부분창) “segmental episodic singing” pansori stories performed in excerpted form, presumably the most common practice until the 20th century, see also tomak sori

buk () a barrel-shaped drum, played by the gosu in pansori performances, also used in pungmul and samulnori

bunchang (분창) “divided singing” see ipche-chang

Byeol-Oreum Geukjang (별오름 극장) lit. “Theatre of the Rising Stars” studio stage of the National Theater, 74 seats, see also Hae-Oreum Geukjang, Dal-Oreum Geukjang, Haneul Geukjang

chang ( ) “song” or “singing” 1) sung parts in pansori pieces, different from spoken aniri; 2) pansori-style singing, as in “changgeuk”, i.e. “drama sung in the style of pansori

changgeuk (창극 唱劇) lit. “singing drama” formerly a term for what is today known as pansori, nowadays exclusively used for stage-adaptations of pansori with an ensemble cast, often referred to as “Korean traditional opera” in English, a hybrid or “traditionesque” [Killick 2010: xxi] genre, minimalist in its early days (beginning of the 20th century), today changgeuk usually involves a large cast, elaborate stage designs and costumes, therefore mostly performed by the NCCK

changja (창자) “singer” technical term for a pansori singer, see also sorikkun, gwangdae

changjak pansori (창작 판소리) “newly-created [works of] pansori” in its widest sense includes all pansori pieces that are not part of the five canonical pieces (o-batang), can be based on “lost” pansori works, other traditional sources, historical or literary material, everyday life or pop culture, see also Ttorang Gwangdae

chuimsae (추임생) calls of encouragement such as “Jal handa!” (Well done), “Jota!” (Good), “Eolssi-gu!” (Wow)

Chungmu Ateu Senteo (충무아트센터) Chungmu Arts Center corporate-owned venue in central Seoul, presenting mostly theatre and musical productions as well as concerts [Homepage]

Chunhyang-ga (춘향가) “Song of Chunhyang” canonical pansori piece about a young couple, Chunhyang, daughter of a gisaeng, and Mongryong, son of a government official, whose class-transcending romance is put to the test

daegeum (대금) traditional Korean bamboo flute

Daehangno (대학로 大學路) lit. “University Street” a neighborhood in Seoul, famous as a “Mekka of theatre”, with over hundred performance spaces of various sizes, including commercial and public venues, the Seoul Theater Center provides a monthly “Culture Map” (Daehangno Munhwa Jido), both in print and as PDF

daehwa-chang (대화창) “dialogue-singing” see ipche-chang

Daejeon Sirip Yeonjeong Gugakwon (대전시립연정국악원) Daejeon Municipal Yeonjeong Korean Traditional Music Center public venue in Daejeon, a city about two hours South of Seoul

Daesaseup Nori (대사습 놀이) lit. “great study play” a major pansori contest (> President’s Prize) held in Jeonju, South Jeolla Province, dating back to pre-modern times, the contest was revived in 1975, awards the “President’s Prize” (Daetongryeong Sang) to the winner, today includes festival-like fringe events, such as the “Bam Saem Konseoteu” (All-Night Concert), where Comic-Variety-Pansori But:too was performed in 2012

Daetongryeong Sang (대통령상) “President’s Prize” awarded at a number of major competitions (e.g. the Daesaseup Nori in Jeonju), usually considered the defining attribute of a myeongchang (“master singer”)

Dal-Oreum Geukjang (달오름 극장) lit. “Theatre of the Rising Moon” a mid-size stage at the National Theater of Korea, 512 seats on two floors, used for the “Wanchang Pansori”-series, together with the Haneul Geukjang

danga (단가 短歌) lit. “short song” a warm-up piece of several minutes usually performed at the beginning of a wanchang performance of pansori to “clear the throat”, often deals with poetic themes, unrelated to the story of the work that follows

danjang (단장 團長) lit. “head of ensemble” rank in the NCCK, a senior member who fulfills the role of “head singer”, often responsible for jakchang of changgeuk works, appears regularly as dochang

Deoksugung (덕수궁) one of the “Five Great Palaces” of Seoul, located next to City Hall, see also Deoksugung Pungnyu

Deoksugung Pungnyu (덕수궁 풍류) a seasonal performance series held on the premises of Deoksu Palace once a week, on Thursdays, every year between April/May and October, since 2010, hosted by the Korean Cultural Heritage Foundation (Hanguk Munhwa-jae Jaedan)

dokchang (독창) “solo singing” a term employed in the early 20th century to distinguish solo performances of pansori from events that featured several singers performing consecutively, see also yeonchang

Don-taryeong (돈타량) “Song of Money” song from Heungbo-ga about the benefits of wealth

dongho-hoe (동호회 同好會) lit. “group of similar taste” informal hobbyist club, in the case of pansori usually centered around one established singer teaching the members who, in return, support him/her at performances

Dusan Ateu Laep (두산 아트랩) Doosan Art Lab a support program of Doosan Art Center for experimental theatre, Sacheon-ga (2007) and Chumul/Salin (2014) by Pansori Project “Za”, as well as the “Pansori Hamlet Project” (2013) received support in their early stages

Dusan Ateu Senteo (두산 아트센터) Doosan Art Center corporate-owned venue in central Seoul, mostly presenting visual art and theatre [Homepage]

dwipuri (뒤풀이) lit. “after-release” after-party following most gugak performances, as well as many other cultural events in Korea, usually includes an extended meal and drinking party, as well as songs, an important occasion for meeting other members of the pansori-art world in an informal setting.

gat () a black hat made of horse-hair, slightly transparent with a round brim, associated with pre-modern yangban culture, in traditional performances, male pansori singers usually wear a white hanbok together with a gat, traditional hat-making (ganniljang) is a National Intangible Cultural Property since 2000

gayageum (가야금) traditional Korean plucked zither

geomungo (거문고) traditional Korean string instrument plucked with a plectrum

Geumho Asiana Robi Yeonju-hoe (금호아시아나 로비 연주회) Kumho Asiana Lobby Concert a performance series hosted by Kumho Asiana in the lobby of the company’s headquarters on Culture Day (“Munhwa It-neun Nal”, every last Wednesday of a month), since 2014

Geumyo Gonggam (금요교감) lit. Friday Sympathy a weekly performance series at the National Gugak Center, inaugurated in 2014, features experimental performances that involve traditional music and dance

gobeop (고법 鼓法) “art of drumming” the skill of accompanying a pansori singer on the buk, a separate category within the official preservation system with currently two “holders”

gosu (고수 鼓手) drummer in traditional Korean performing arts, in pansori the gosu is playing the barrel-shaped buk, according to jangdan (rhythmic patterns)

gugak (국악) lit. “music of the nation” the most common general term for traditional Korean music, alternatives are jeontong eumak (traditional music) or Hanguk eumak (Korean music)

Gugak Gamsanghoe (국악 감상회) Traditional Music and Dance Appreciation Concert a monthly variety show presented at the National Gugak Center between 1956 and 1983, predecessor of the Toyo Myeongpum Gongyeon

Gugak Myujikeol Jipdan “Taru” (국악뮤지컬집단 타루) Gugak Musical Collective “Taroo” pansori ensemble currently headed by Jeong Jong-im, create interactive children theatre (Hayan Nuns- seop Horangi, “Tiger with White Eyebrows”, 2011), a variety-show of short personal collaborations with various other artists (Pansori, Reinbucheu-reul Sin-da, “Pansori, Putting on Rainboots”, 2012), a musical about the first female pansori singer (Unhyeon-gung Romaenseu, “Unhyeon Palace Romance”, 2012), and a piece that deals with the life of high school students and their smartphones, featuring mask dance drama (Pansori, Doktok-hada, 2014), also the “Pansori Hamlet Project” (since 2013) [Homepage, Facebook, Twitter: @on_taroo]

Gugak Nuri (국악누리) “World of Traditional Music” pansori-ensemble, aiming to combine “the charm of traditional music and musical enjoyment”, founded in 2008, breakthrough with the piece “Goraeya Eumak Sallong” (Korea Music Salon, 2010), produced Comic-Variety-Pansori But:too in 2012

gukchang (국창 國唱) lit. “national singer” informal title used for deceased pansori masters of the past or truly outstanding singers

Gukga Muhyeong Munhwa-jae (국가무형문화재) National Intangible Cultural Property currently the official designation for performing arts and technical skills protected on a national level, pansori being registered as No. 5, until 2016 known as Important Intangible Cultural Property (Jungyo Muhyeong Munhwa-jae)

gukgeuk (국극 國劇) “national drama” earlier term for changgeuk, used for example by the National Gukgeuk Company of Korea (Gungnip Gukgeuk-dan) between 1962 and 1973, still used for yeoseong gukgeuk, an all-female variation of changgeuk

Gungnip Changgeuk-dan (국립창극단) National Changgeuk Company of Korea (NCCK) founded in 1962 as a resident ensemble of the National Theater (Gungnip Geukjang), has staged over hundred productions of changgeuk and dominates the genre today, employs a large number of acknowledged pansori singers and hosts the monthly “Wanchang Pansori”-series

Gungnip Geukjang (국립극장) National Theater of Korea (NTOK) founded in 1950, located in a complex on the slope of Mount Namsan since 1973, hosts several in-house ensembles, the National Changgeuk Company (Gungnip Changgeuk-dan), the National Dance Company (Gungnip Muyong-dan), and the National Orchestra of Korea (Gungnip Gugak Gwanhyeon Akdan), includes four performance spaces, the large-size Hae-Oreum Geukjang, the mid-size Dal-Oreum Geukjang, the arena-style Haneul Geukjang, and the studio-size Byeol-Oreum Geukjang, as well as the Museum of Performing Arts [Homepage]

Gungnip Gugak-won (국립국악원) National Gugak Center main public institution dedicated to traditional Korean music (gugak), with several resident ensembles (court music, folk music, dance, newly-composed music), hosts several stages, including the large-size theatre “Yeak-dang”, the mid-size theatre “Umyeondang”, and the “Pungnyu Sarangbang”, a small dedicated  gugak performance space, also includes a museum on gugak, regional branches in Busan, Namwon, and on Jindo Island [Homepage]

Gungnip Repeotori Sijeun (국립레퍼토리시즌) National Repertory Season a combined attempt of the National Theater of Korea and its three resident ensembles to establish a repertory of works for repeated revival, inaugurated in the fall season of 2012

Guro Ateu Baelli Yesul Geukjang (구로아트밸리 예술극장) Guro Arts Valley Theater a regular mid-size performance space with a proscenium stage, associated with the cultural center of Guro district in Western Seoul, venue of the premiere of of Taroo’s “Pansori Hamlet Project” (final production)

gut (굿) shamanic ritual

gwangdae (광대 廣大) lit. “entertainer”, “clown” a common term for pansori singers that stresses their entertaining qualities, often used in historical writings and earlier scholarship, today sorikkun is more common, another more technical term is changja

Gwangdae-ga (광대가) “Song of the Entertainer” early poetics of pansori by Sin Jae-hyo, written in the form of a danga (around 1875) [English translation: Song Bang Song 1976 in Korea Journal 16.8: 24–32]

gyechang (계창) “continuous singing” see wanchang

Gyeoltu-ga (결투가) “Duel Song” a scene in Taroo’s “Pansori Hamlet Project”, the final duel between Hamlet and Laertes, equivalent of act V, scene 2 of Shakespeare’s Hamlet

Hae-Oreum Geukjang (해오름 극장) lit. “Theatre of the Rising Sun” the largest stage at the National Theater of Korea, 1,563 seats on three floors, used for most changgeuk performances

haegeum (해금) traditional Korean fiddle

Haemlit (햄릿) Hamlet theatre production by Ensemble “Georipae” (Yeonhui-dan Georipae), directed by Lee Yun-taek, premiere in 1995

han ( ) lit. “resentment” roughly translatable as “sorrow” or “regret”, a “Korean ethos of pain and suffering” [Willoughby 2000] often attributed to pansori singing

Hanyeoreum Bam-ui Kkum (한여름 밤의 ) A Midsummer Night’s Dream theatre production by ensemble Yeohaeng-ja, directed by Yang Jeong-ung, premiere in 2002

hanbok (한복) “Korean dressing” traditional Korean clothes, usually worn by the singer and the drummer in orthodox and touristic performance of pansori, in the case of male performers typically complemented by a gat (hat made of horse-hair)

Haneul Geukjang (하늘 극장) lit. “Sky Theatre” a circular mid-size stage at the National Theater of Korea, 627 seats, used for the “Wanchang Pansori”-series, together with the Dal-Oreum Geukjang

Hanguk Munhwa-ui Jip (한국문화의 ) “House of Korean Culture”, also known as KOUS a public venue for traditional performing arts run by the Korea Cultural Heritage Foundation, located in the Southern part of Seoul, not to be confused with Korea House (Hanguk-ui Jip) [Homepage]

Hanguk Munhwajae Jaedan (한국문화재재단 韓國文化財財團) Korea Cultural Heritage Foundation (CHF) manages the appointed holders in the preservation system, runs offices, archives, rehearsal facilities and several performance venues dedicated to traditional arts, including Folk Theatre “Pungnyu” and KOUS. [Homepage, Twitter: @CHF_Korea]

Hanguk Pansori Bojonhoe (한국판소리보존회) Korean Pansori Preservation Society an organization with fourteen branches in Seoul and over fifty regional branches, supports the activities of its members, appointed singers and their students, for example by hosting performances [Homepage]

Hanguk Yesul Jonghab Hakgyo (한국예술종합학교 韓國藝術綜合學校) Korean National University of Arts (K-Arts, formerly KNUA) well-known for its yeonhui (folk performing arts) program that promotes diversity in genres taught [Homepage]

Hanguk-ui Jip (한국의 ) Korea House public venue for touristic programs of traditional performing arts, traditional weddings, cultural experiences, run by the Korea Cultural Heritage Foundation, established in 1957, not to be confused with KOUS (Hanguk Munhwa-ui Jip) [Homepage]

Heungbo-ga (흥보가) “Song of Heungbo” canonical pansori piece about two brothers, poor Heungbo and rich Nolbo, whose characters could not be more different

Ibyeol-ga (이별가) “Song of Separation” song from Chunhyang-ga, marks the dramatic peak of the first half of the piece, the separation of the protagonists

ilin-dayeok (일인다역) “one person [performs] all roles” the skill of a pansori singer to switch at will between narration and the enactment of different characters

ingan munhwa-jae (인간문화재) “national human treasure” popular term for (yeneungboyu-ja

Insa-dong Geori Soripan (인사동 거리 소리판) Insa-dong Street Soripan a popular format of the Ttorang Gwangdae in the early years of the 21st century, where singers would perform in the busy streets of Insa-dong, a neighborhood in Seoul dominated by tourism,

Insaeng Baengnyeon (인생백년 人生百年) “A Life of Hundred Years” a danga presented by Park Song-hui at the “Deoksugung Pungnyu”, originally composed for the funeral of her teacher Park Nok-ju (1905–79), like most danga a poetic reflection of the human condition rather than a narrative

Insaeng-ga (인생가) “Song of Life” song in Taroo’s “Pansori Hamlet Project” that replaces the “To Be or Not To Be”-soliloquy, the four performers sing one verse of the song, each in a different style

ipche-chang (입체창) lit. “three-dimensional singing” pansori performed with the lyrics distributed among several singers, resulting in dedicated roles rather than ilin-dayeok, also known as bunchangdaehwa-chang

isu-ja (이수자) lit. “succeeder” rank in the Korean cultural heritage preservation system, isuja account for the majority of professional performers above the level of students (jeonsuja, referring to registered students) and many of them never advance above as positions for higher ranks are limited

jangdan (장단) lit. “long-short” rhythmic patterns used in pansori and other gugak genres, jangdan are fixed in tempo but leave a lot of variation to the drummer (gosu)

janggu (장구) hourglass-shaped drum, used in various gugak genres (inc. pungmul, also in samulnori), but in pansori the barrel-shaped buk is commonly used

japga (잡가 雜歌) lit. “trivial song” genre of art songs historically performed by professionals, musically resembling minyo in some ways, likewise distinguished by regional affiliation

Jejudo (제주도) Jeju Island a volcanic island south of the Korean peninsula, known as a favorite destination for both domestic and international tourists, main setting of Baebijang-jeon

Jeokbyeok-ga (적벽가) “Song of the Red Cliff” canonical pansori piece about war between three generals, different from the other pansori works, the plot is not based on Korean folklore but on the Chinese Romance of the Three Kingdoms (Kor. 삼국지연의 三國志演義, Chin. 三國演義) set around 200 AD

Jeonggwanheon (정관헌) a Western-style pavilion on the premises of Deoksugung Palace, built around 1900 by Russian architect A. I. Sabatin as a place for the royals’ relaxation, used as a stage for the Deoksugung Pungnyu-series

Jeonju (전주) mid-size city in Jeolla-buk-do, two or three hours South of Seoul, famous for traditional culture and music, in particular pansori, hosts the yearly Daesaseup Nori-contest (in spring) and the Jeonju International Sori Festival (in fall)

 jeonsu gyoyuk jogyo (전수교육 조교) lit. “transmission teaching assistant” a high rank in the Korean cultural heritage preservation system, in the sense of a senior teacher

jeonsu-ja (전수자) lit. “initiate” low rank in the Korean cultural heritage preservation system, a registered student

Jindo Arirang (진도 아리랑) famous folk song originating from Jindo Island, one of many regional variations of “Arirang”

Jungyo Muhyeong Munhwa-jae (중요무형문화재) Important Intangible Cultural Property see Gukga Muhyeong Munhwa-jae

keun jeol (큰절) “deep bow” performed kneeling with the head touching the floor, the most iconic way of expressing gratitude in Korea, customarily offered to parents (and by implication to the deceased ancestors) at ancestral rites, at full-length presentations (balpyo-hoe) sometimes offered by the singer to his/her teacher

kkwaeng-gwari (꽹과리) traditional Korean percussion, a small handheld brass-gong with a distinct percussive sound, used in pungmul and part of the four instruments of samulnori

LG Ateu Senteo (LG 아트센터) LG Arts Center corporate-owned venue in southern Seoul, presenting domestic theatre productions and oversea guest performances [Homepage]

madang (마당) lit. “village square” or “backyard” in many ways used similarly to pan (판), can also refer to a piece of pansori, as in “the five madang of pansori”, see also pano-batang

madang nori (마당놀이) lit. “play in the madang” popular theatre that integrates various traditional performance styles in large-scale performances, developed by ensemble Michu (극단 미추) as a de-politized variant of protest madang-geuk in the early 1980s, recently revived at the National Theater as a holiday repertory

madang-geuk (마당극) lit. “backyard/village square drama” political theatre that emerged in the 1970s in connection with the Minjung Movement, employs techniques from traditional arts, particularly tal-nori (mask dance drama) and shamanic gut, combined with critical content

makkeolli (막걸리) rice wine light alcoholic drink, white and milky, associated with lower classes and tradition

Minjung Undong (민중운동 民衆運動) lit. “movement of the masses”, Minjung Movement a large pro-democratic movement in South Korea of the 1970s and 80s, in opposition to the authoritarian rule of Park Chung-hee and Chun Doo-hwan, included artistic activities including protest madang-geuk

Minsok Geukjang “Pungnyu” (민속극장풍류”) Folk Theater “Pungnyu” a public venue for traditional performing arts run by the Korea Cultural Heritage Foundation, located in the Southern part of Seoul (see also “pungnyu”)

minyo (민요 民謠) “folk song” exist in various regional forms, e.g. Namdo minyo (from the Southern provinces), Gyeonggi minyo (from Gyeonggi province) etc., pansori singers usually can perform some minyo as well

Muhyeong Munhwa Yusan Boho-mit Jinheung-beop (무형문화재 유산보호  진흥법) Law on the Safeguarding and Promotion of Intangible Cultural Heritage official protection law for traditional performing arts and technical skills, promulgated on March 28, 2016, before intangible cultural heritage was covered by the Intangible Cultural Property Protection Law (Muhyeong Munhwa-jae Boho-beop)

Muhyeong Munhwa-jae Boho-beop (무형문화재 보호법) Intangible Cultural Property Protection Law official protection law for cultural heritage, dating to 1962, superseded by the Muhyeong Munhwa Yusan Boho-mit Jinheung-beop in 2016

Munhwa-jae-cheong (문화재청) Cultural Heritage Administration (CHA) governmental organization responsible for designation and registration of cultural heritage [Homepage]

Nae Ireum Yesol-a! ( 이름 예솔아!) “My Name is Yesol-a!” pop duet sung by Lee Jaram and her father Lee Gyu-dae, a big hit in 1984, audio available on Youtube

Namsan Gugak-dang (남산 국악당) a performance space specifically designed for traditional music (gugak), located in central Seoul near Mount Namsan, part of the Namsangol Hanok Village (Namsan-gol Hanok Maeul) Gugak Nuri’s Comic-Variety-Pansori But:too premiered here [Homepage]

neoreumsae (너름새) gestures and movements employed in pansori, for the most part conventionally codified, performed according to the singer’s individual style, see also ballim

 Norae-deusi Hamlet (노래듯이 햄릿) Hamlet Cantabile theatre production by Performance Group Tuida, premiere in 2005

nundaemok (눈대목) well-known episodes or songs from canonical pansori pieces, highlights, often performed stand-alone, e.g. “Sarang-ga” from Chunhyang-ga

pan () an elusive concept referring to a space of spontaneous interaction, a gathering of people, a situation, often situated in the idealized pre-modern past, see also madang [> Donna Lee Kwon 2005Music, Movement and Space: A Study of the Madang and P’an in Korean Expressive Folk Culture]

pan-noreum (판놀음) “play in the pan” variety-shows by traveling entertainers in pre-modern Korea, a probable context of early pansori performances

Pansori Mandeul-gi Ja (판소리 만들기 “자”) Pansori Project “Za” (mandeul-gi literally means “making”) pansori ensemble  headed by Lee Jaram, founded in 2007, adapted two plays by Brecht (Sacheon-ga, 2007; Eokcheok-ga, 2011) as well as short stories by Ju Yo-seop (Chumul/Salin, 2014)) and Gabriel García Márquez (Ibang-in-ui Norae, 2015), disbanded in February 2017 [Homepage, Facebook, Twitter: @Pansoriza]

Pansori Yeongu (판소리 연구) Pansori Research the bi-annual journal of the Pansori Research Society (Pansori Hakhoe, 판소리학회), published since 1989, the main output for pansori-related research, available online

piri (피리) traditional Korean double-reed woodwind

Ppuri Gipeun Namu Pansori Gamsanghoe (뿌리 깊은 나무 판소리 감상회) “Deep Rooted Tree Pansori Appreciation Concert” a highly successful concert series sponsored by the Korean Branch of Encyclopedia Britannica since 1974, presented early wanchang performances since 1976

pungmul (풍물 風物) lit. “wind objects” a traditional folk genre of drumming and dance, highly participatory, also known as nongak (농악, farmer’s music), see also samulnori

pungnyu (풍류 風流) literally “a breeze of wind”, figuratively “a taste for the arts” historically, an upper-class lifestyle that included music, poetry, and dance,“refined pastimes” enjoyed at private parties that even allowed for “egalitarian relationship between patrons and musicians during the music-making event” [Sung-Hee Park 2012: 33]

Pungnyu Sarangbang (풍류 사랑방) a small-size performance space at the National Gugak Center, designed especially for traditional music, without electronic amplification, the name recurs to reception rooms (sarang-bang) in 19th-century upper-class homes, dedicated to “refined pastimes” (pungnyu), the “Geumyo Gyogam”-series is shown here

Pungwol-ga (풍월가 風月歌) “Song of the Beauty of Nature” danga

pyujeon gugak (퓨전국악) “fusion gugak” traditional Korean music (gugak) combined with elements (instruments, melodies, harmonies etc.) from other genres, i.e. pop music, jazz, classic

Romio-wa Julliet (로미오와 줄리엣) Romeo and Juliet theatre production by ensemble Mokhwa, directed by Oh Tae-seok, premiere in 1995

Sa-neunya, Jung-neunya (사느냐, 죽느냐) lit. “To live or to Die” common translation of the first line of Hamlet’s famous soliloquy “To Be or Not to Be”, title and first line of a song performed by Taroo as part of the “Pansori Hamlet Project” in the second (lobby-)showcase, not part of the final production

Sacheol-ga (사철가) “Song of the Four Seasons” popular danga about the brevity of life, also known by its iconic first line, “I san, jeo san…” (This mountain, that mountain…”)

Sae-taryeong (새타령) “Song of the Birds” famous song from Jeokbyeok-ga, the birds symbolizing the souls of deceased soldiers

samulnori (사물놀이) lit. “play of four objects” a reduced stage-version of pungmul, originally the name of a percussion ensemble founded in 1978 but nowadays mostly used for the genre

san-gongbu (산공부) “mountain training” extended retreat to the countryside for singing practice, also known as baek-il gongbu (백일공부, “hundred days study”)

Sarang-ga (사랑가) “Love Song” famous song from Chunhyang-ga, arguably the most famous stand-alone pansori part

saseol (사설) the lyrics of a pansori work

seongak (성악 聲樂) lit. “vocal music” usually referring to Western-style bel canto singing

Seoul Yeongeuk Senteo (서울 연극센터) Seoul Theater Center a public institution run by the Seoul Foundation for Arts and Culture (Seoul Munhwa Jaedan), located in the theatre-neighborhood Daehangno, offers information and reduced reservations for all kinds of theatre performances, also hosts a library and an archive, venue of the second (lobby-)showcase of Taroo’s “Pansori Hamlet Project”

sijo (시조) a form of written or sung poetry, historically practiced by literati, in sung form considered a genre of gugak

Simbongsa Nun Tteu-neunde (심봉사  뜨는데) lit. “Blindman Sim opens his eyes” episode from Simcheong-ga, in which  the father of the heroine reunites with his lost daughter and regains his eyesight.

Simcheong-ga (심청가) “Song of Simcheong” canonical pansori piece about a good daughter who sacrifices herself to regain her father’s eyesight and is redeemed by divine intervention

sori (소리) 1) sound, in particular the human voice 2) pansori-style singing, also known as chang

Sori Gongjang “Badak Sori” (소리공장 바닥소리) lit. “factory for making [pan]sori  together” (gongjang), “songs [or voices] from the ground/bottom” (badak sori) pansori ensemble headed by Choe Yong-seok, founded in 2002 by five pansori singers who participated in activities of the Ttorang Gwangdae, hosted a performance series (“Badak Sori-pan”), performed at festivals, and were involved in political activism, in recent years producing more family-friendly works of pansori-theatre, such as the family musical Dak-deul-ui Kkum, Nalda (Dream of the Hens: Flying, 2009), the “cruel sori-theatre” Ganbam (Last Night, 2012), the pansori-monodrama Bangtancheol Gabang: Baedal-ui Sin-i Doen Sanai (Bulletproof Bag: The Man Who Became a Delivery-Ghost, 2014), and the historical mystery pan- sori drama Daehan Jeguk Myeongtamjeong Hong Seollok: Gwisin Tereo Sageon (Hong Seollok, Detective in the Great Korean Empire: The Ghost Terror Incident, 2015), also keeping a repertory of short pieces with political themes such as the “Song of the Smart Bomb” (Seumateu Poktan-ga) [Homepage, Facebook, Twitter: @badaksori]

sorikkun (소리꾼) lit. “voice-worker” typical (humble) self-designation of pansori singers, especially of the younger generation

Ssukdaemeori (쑥대머리) “Disheveled Hair” famous song from Chunhyang-ga, expresses the desperation of the imprisoned heroine

Sugung-ga (수궁가) “Song of the Underwater Palace” canonical pansori piece about a Dragon King fallen ill who sends a tortoise out to find help in the form of a rabbit for help

tal-nori (탈놀이) lit. “mask play” mask dance drama, a genre of traditional Korean performing arts (yeonhui), also known as gamyeon-geuk (가면극, mask drama) or, oversimplifying the variety of regional variations, talchum (mask dance), the most well-known are Bongsan Talchum and Goseong O-gwangdae

teuroteu (트러트) derived from English trot music popular genre of sentimental pop songs

tomak sori (토막소리) lit. “piecemeal-sound” pansori performed in excerpted form, a derogatory term used to highlight the difference to wanchang (full-length) performances, otherwise similar to bubun-chang

Toyo Myeongpum Gongyeon (토요명품공연) lit. Saturday Premium Performance, off. Saturday Performance of Korean Dance and Music a weekly variety show presented at the National Gugak Center since 1983, featuring a rotating program of various gugak and traditional dance genres, see also Gugak Gamsanghoe

ttara-baeugi (따라배우기) lit. “learning by following along” a sing-a-long lesson sometimes employed by the singer or an MC before or during a pansori performance to bolster participation

tteok () rice cake a common snack associated with tradition, customarily handed out during the intermission of full-length pansori performances or at other gugak events

Ttorang Gwangdae (또랑광대, sometimes spelled 또랑깡대), lit. “small-time entertainers” a loose group of mostly graduates from university-level gugak-programs active in the early 2000s, including Lee Jaram and Choe Yong-seok, presented short new works with contemporary content, often in performances in public places (e.g. “Insa-dong Geori Sori-pan”)

wanchang (완창) “complete singing” full-length performance of a pansori piece, formerly (in the 1960s) known as gyechang (continuous singing), necessary step towards recognition as a master singer (myeongchang), also the name of a monthly performance series at the National Theater (> Wanchang Pansori)

wanchang balpyohoe (완창 발표회) “full-length presentation” full-length performance of a pansori piece, equivalent to a solo-recital, a rite of passage for aspiring singers of pansori, usually organized by the singer him/herself, free of admission and sponsored by national foundations or regionally organized preservation societies (bojon-hoe), rarely promoted professionally

Wanchang Pansori (완창 판소리) “Full-Length Pansori” name of a monthly performance series at the National Theater, established in 1984, hosted by the National Changgeuk Company, presents well-known singers (mostly members of the NCCK or winners of contests) to a general public

Welkom Ssieoteo (웰콤 씨어터) Welcomm Theatre a commercial venue in Seoul, blackbox stage, in 2012, Badak Sori performed their “Sori ‘It’ Suda” here

wonhyeong (원형) “original form” the authoritative version of a pansori work perpetuated by preservation legislature (Law on the Safeguarding and Promotion of Intangible Cultural Heritage) through the system of National Intangible Cultural Property

yangban (양반) members of the 19th century upperclass, influential sponsors of pansori in the late 19th century were often yangban

yanggeum (양금) Korean hammered dulcimer, a traditional instrument with influences from the West

yeneung boyu-ja (예능 보유자) lit. “holder of skill” the highest rank in the official system of preservation, often glossed as “national human treasure” (ingan munhwa-jae), exist for every art registered as a Gukga Muhyeong Munhwa-jae, in pansori one boyu-ja is registered for each of the five canonical pieces, with two additional boyu-ja of the art of drumming (gobeop)

yeomillak (여민락 與民樂) lit. “enjoyment with the people” a genre of gugak performed by a large ensemble, Confucian ritual music originally celebrated in the royal court

yeonchang (연창) “consecutive singing” pansori performed by several singers one after the other, together presenting one full story, popular in the early 20th century, today again an alternative to wanchang (full length) performances by a solo singer

Yeongdeungpo Ateu-hol (영등포 아트홀) Yeongdeungpo Art Hall cultural center of Yeongdeungpo District in Western Seoul, run by the Yeongdeungpo Cultural Foundation (Yeongdeungpo Munhwa Jaedan), includes a regular (proscenium) stage with a mid-size auditorium of 526 seats

Yeongdeungpo Boom Up (영등포 Boom Up) a series of free guest performances at various venues in Yeongdeungpo District (Seoul), hosted by the Yeongdeungpo Cultural Foundation (Yeongdeungpo Munhwa Jaedan), aimed at the “revitalization of local culture”, Chumul/Salin was shown as part of the 2015 “Yeongdeungpo Boom Up”, see some photos of posters in public on the blog “Smart Marketing”

yeonhui (연희 演戱) lit. “flowing play” performing arts, today mostly used for traditional ensemble folk arts such as tal-noripungmul, puppetry (kkokdu-gaksi noreum), sometimes comprising pansori, too

yeonhui-geuk (연희극 演戱劇) “folk-theatre drama” yeonhui put on stage, often by young ensembles trained in different genres who tackle current themes

Yesul-ui Jeondang (예술의전당) Seoul Arts Center major venue for opera, theatre, musicals, and classical concerts, located in Southern Seoul, with an opera house, smaller theatres, and concert halls, in direct vicinity to the National Gugak Center [Homepage]

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